The concept of animal rights, or animal liberation, embraces the view that to elevate the most basic interests of human beings – such as the avoidance of pain – over the similar interests of non-human animals, on the basis of species membership alone, is a form of prejudice akin to racism or sexism. Animal rights advocates regard non-human animals as persons and members of the moral community whose interests deserve legal protection.
The animal rights movement emerged in the 19th century, focused largely on opposition to vivisection, and in the 1960s the modern movement sprang up in England around the Hunt Saboteurs Association. In the 1970s, the Australian philosopher, Peter Singer, and the American philosopher, Tom Regan, began to provide the movement with its philosophical foundations. Singer argued for animal liberation on the basis of utilitarianism, first in 1973 in The New York Review of Books and later in his Animal Liberation (1975), while Regan developed a deontological theory of animal rights in several papers from 1975 onwards, followed by The Case for Animal Rights (1983).
A distinction persists within the movement – based on the utilitarian/deontological divide – between those who seek incremental reform, a position known as animal protectionism, and those on the abolitionist side, who argue that reform that aims to regulate, rather than abolish, the property status of animals is counter-productive.
The following is a list of notable animal rights advocates from all positions within the movement, from academics to activists, listed according to their country of birth.
|Name||Born||Image||Country of birth||Occupation||Source|
|Carol J. Adams||1951||100px||30px US||Eco-feminist writer, author of The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990)|||
|Bryan Adams||1959||File:Bryan Adams Hamburg MG 0631 flickr (cropped).jpg||30px Canada||Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Douglas Adams||1952–2001||100px||30px UK||Writer, campaigner for the Great Ape Project|||
|Casey Affleck||1975||100px||30px US||Actor, animal rights activist|||
|Cleveland Amory||1917–1998||30px US||Founder of the Fund for Animals, president of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Pamela Anderson||1967||100px||30px US||Model, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Michael Aufhauser||1952||30px Germany||Founder of Gut Aiderbichl, an animal sanctuary|||
|Greg Avery||1963||30px UK||Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns|||
|Alex Baldwin||1958||100px||30px US||Actor, narrator of Meet Your Meat (2002)|||
|Matt Ball||30px US||Executive director of Vegan Outreach, co-author of The Animal Activist's Handbook (2009)|||
|Martin Balluch||1954||100px||30px Austria||Co-founder of Vegane Gesellschaft Österreich, president of Verein Gegen Tierfabriken|||
|David Barbarash||30px Canada||Former spokesperson for the North American Animal Liberation Press Office|||
|Neal Barnard||30px US||President of Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine|||
|Shane and Sia Barbi||1963||100px||30px US||Models|||
|Brigitte Bardot||1934||100px||30px France||Former model, animal rights activist, founder of the Brigitte Bardot Foundation|||
|Kim Basinger||1953||100px||30px US||Actress, model, animal rights activist|||
|Gene Baur||100px||30px US||Founder of Farm Sanctuary|||
|Tom Beauchamp||30px US||Professor of Philosophy at Georgetown University, co-author of The Human Use of Animals (1998)|||
|Marc Bekoff||1945||30px US||Professor Emeritus of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Colorado, Boulder, co-founder with Jane Goodall of Ethologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Jeremy Bentham||1748–1832||100px||30px UK||Philosopher, author of the oft-quoted "The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?"|||
|Steven Best||1955||File:StevenBestLondon.jpg||30px US||Philosopher, former Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson|||
|Brigid Brophy||1929–1995||30px UK||Writer, author of an influential article, "The Rights of Animals," in The Sunday Times, London, 1965.|||
|Mel Broughton||1960||30px UK||Co-founder of the SPEAK campaign|||
|Ned Buyukmihci||30px UK||Doctor of veterinary medicine, founder of Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights|||
|Paola Cavalieri||30px Italy||Philosopher, campaigner for the Great Ape Project|||
|Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne||1623–1673||100px||30px UK||Writer, anti-vivisectionist|||
|Cesar Chavez||1927–1993||100px||30px US||Co-founder of the National Farm Workers Association|||
|Alan Clark||1928–1999||100px||30px UK||Conservative Member of Parliament (1974–1992)|||
|Stephen R. L. Clark||1945||100px||30px UK||Professor of philosophy at the University of Liverpool (1984–2009), author of The Moral Status of Animals (1977)|||
|Jean Clemens||1880–1909||30px US||Daughter of Mark Twain|||
|Frances Power Cobbe||1822–1904||100px||30px UK||Founder of the National Anti-Vivisection Society and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection|||
|J. M. Coetzee||1940||100px||30px South Africa||Novelist, recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature, author of The Lives of Animals (1999)|||
|Priscilla Cohn||30px US||Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Pennsylvania State University, associate director of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Rod Coronado||1966||File:Rod Coronado (cropped).jpg||30px US||Animal rights activist, formerly for the ALF, Earth First!, and ELF|||
|James Cromwell||1940||File:James Cromwell 2010.jpg||30px US||Actor, played the voice of the farmer in Babe (1995)|||
|Karen Davis||30px US||President of United Poultry Concerns, author of The Holocaust and the Henmaid's Tale (2005)|||
|David DeGrazia||30px US||Professor of Philosophy at George Washington University, author of Taking Animals Seriously (1996)|||
|Chris DeRose||1948||30px US||Founder of Last Chance for Animals|||
|Rukmini Devi||1904–1986||100px||30px India||Dancer, founder of the Animal Welfare Board of India|||
|Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton||1878–1951||30px UK||Co-founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Hugh Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding||1882–1970||100px||30px UK||Commander of RAF Fighter Command, president of the National Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Muriel Dowding, Baroness Dowding||1908–1981||30px UK||Founder of Beauty Without Cruelty|||
|Joan Dunayer||30px US||Author of Animal Equality (2001) and Speciesism (2004)|||
|John Feldman||1967||100px||30px US||Musician, appeared in Behind the Mask (2006)|||
|Roger Fouts||1943||100px||30px US||Primate researcher known for his work with Washoe the chimpanzee, adviser to the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Gary Francione||1951||100px||30px US||Distinguished Professor of Law and Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Scholar of Law & Philosophy at Rutgers School of Law-Newark, leading abolitionist, author of Animals, Property, and the Law (2005)|||
|Lawrence Finsen||30px US||Professor of philosophy at University of Redlands, co-author of The Animal Rights Movement in America (1994)|||
|Bruce Friedrich||1969||30px US||Senior Director for Strategic Initiatives, Farm Sanctuary|||
|Maneka Gandhi||1956||30px India||Politician, founder of People for Animals|||
|Robert Garner||30px UK||Professor of political theory at the University of Leicester; co-author of The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation? (2010)|||
|Juliet Gellatley||30px UK||Founder and director of Viva!|||
|Antoine Goetschel||1958||100px||30px Switzerland||Lawyer, animal advocate for the canton of Zurich|||
|Celia Hammond||30px UK||Former model, founder of the Celia Hammond Animal Trust|||
|Lizzy Lind af Hageby||1878–1963||File:Lizzy Lind af Hageby 1913 (cropped2).jpg||30px Sweden||Founder of the Animal Defence and Anti-Vivisection Society, known for the Brown Dog affair|||
|Lee Hall||ca. 1961||30px US||Lawyer, legal director of Friends of Animals|||
|Barry Horne||1952–2001||100px||30px UK||Animal rights activist, hunger striker|||
|Chrissie Hynde||1951||100px||30px US||Singer-songwriter|||
|V. R. Krishna Iyer||1915||100px||30px India||Former judge of the Supreme Court of India|||
|Roberta Kalechofsky||1931||30px US||Writer, author of Animal Suffering and the Holocaust: The Problem with Comparisons (2003)|||
|Shannon Keith||30px US||Animal rights lawyer, director of Behind the Mask (2006)|||
|Anna Kingsford||1846–1888||100px||30px UK||Physician, anti-vivisectionist, author of The Perfect Way in Diet (1881)|||
|Marti Kheel||1948–2011||30px US||Ecofeminist writer, founder of Feminists for Animal Rights|||
|Niko Koffeman||1958||30px Netherlands||Senator, Party for the Animals|||
|Dennis Kucinich||1946||100px||30px US||Congressman|||
|Elizabeth Kucinich||1977||100px||30px UK||Director of public affairs for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine|||
|Carla Lane||1928||30px UK||Television scriptwriter, ran Animaline animal sanctuary|||
|k.d. lang||1961||100px||30px Canada||Musician|||
|Gill Langley||1952||30px UK||Scientist, campaigner against the use of animals in research|||
|Ronnie Lee||1951||File:RonnieLeeALF.jpg||30px UK||Founder of the Animal Liberation Front|||
|Bob Linden||30px US||Host of Go Vegan Radio|||
|Ludvig Lindström||1975||30px Sweden||Animal rights activist, founder of Global Happiness Organization|||
|Andrew Linzey||1951||30px UK||Theologian, founder of the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Linda McCartney||1941–1998||File:Paul McCartney with Linda McCartney - Wings - 1976.jpg||30px US||Photographer, musician, founder of Linda McCartney Foods|||
|Mary McCartney||1969||30px UK||Photographer, has taken photographs for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Paul McCartney||1942||File:Paul McCartney in Dublin 2010 (b).jpg||30px UK||Musician, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Stella McCartney||1971||30px UK||Designer, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Melody MacDonald||30px UK||Animal rights activist, author of Caught in the Act: The Feldberg Investigation (1994)|||
|Colin McGinn||1950||30px UK||Professor of philosopher, University of Miami|||
|Bill Maher||File:BillMaherSept10.jpg||30px US||Comedian, board director of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Keith Mann||File:KeithMann2.jpg||30px UK||Animal rights activist, author of From Dusk 'til Dawn: An Insider's View of the Growth of the Animal Liberation Movement (2007)|||
|Dan Mathews||100px||30px US||Senior Vice-President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Lea Michele||100px||30px US||Actress, campaigner for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Moby||100px||30px US||Musician, DJ, released Animal Rights (1996)|||
|Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson||1941||30px US||Former psychoanalyst, author of When Elephants Weep (1995)|||
|Mary Midgley||1919||30px UK||Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Newcastle University (retired), author of Animals And Why They Matter (1983)|||
|Heather Mills||1968||File:HeatherMills1.jpg||30px UK||Campaigner for Viva!|||
|Shaun Monson||1958||30px US||Director of Earthlings (2005)|||
|José Ferrater Mora||1912-1991||100px||30px Spain||Philosopher, honoured by the Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics|||
|Morrissey||File:Morrissey-Alexander-Film (cropped).jpg||30px UK||Musician|||
|Jesús Mosterín||1941||File:Jesús Mosterín (October 2008).jpg||30px Spain||Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science at the University of Barcelona, honorary president of the Spanish Great Ape Project|||
|Ingrid Newkirk||1949||File:Alec Baldwin Ingrid Newkirk Donny Moss PETA Shankbone 2008.jpg||30px UK||Co-founder and President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|David Nibert||30px US||Abolitionist, Professor of Sociology at Wittenberg University|||
|Heather Nicholson||1967||100px||30px UK||Co-founder of the Consort beagles, Hillgrove cats, and SHAC campaigns|||
|Martha Nussbaum||1947||100px||30px US||Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago|||
|Natasja Oerlemans||1969||100px||30px Netherlands||Politician, Party for the Animals|||
|Kelly Overton||30px US||Executive Director of People Protecting Animals & Their Habitats|||
|Esther Ouwehand||1976||100px||30px Netherlands||Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals|||
|Alex Pacheco||1958||100px||30px US||Co-founder of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Jill Phipps||1964–1995||File:JillPhipps.jpg||30px UK||Animal rights activist, campaigner against live export|||
|Joaquin Phoenix||1974||File:Joaquin Cannes 20002 cropped.jpg||30px Puerto Rico||Actor, animal rights activist, narrator of Earthlings (2005)|||
|River Phoenix||1970–1993||File:River Phoenix - hi res scan (cropped).jpg||30px US||Actor, animal rights activist|||
|Summer Phoenix||1978||30px US||Actress, animal rights activist|||
|Pink||1979||File:Pink 3.jpg||30px US||Singer|||
|James Rachels||1941–2003||30px US||Philosopher|||
|Qiu Renzong||ca. 1933||30px China||Bioethicist|||
|Tom Regan||1951||100px||30px US||Professor emeritus of philosophy at North Carolina State University, author of The Case for Animal Rights (1983)|||
|Bernard Rollin||30px US||Professor of philosophy, animal sciences, and biomedical sciences at Colorado State University|||
|Craig Rosebraugh||1951||100px||30px US||Writer, environmentalist, animal rights activist|||
|Mark Rowlands||1962||30px UK||Professor of Philosophy at the University of Miami, author of The Philosopher and the Wolf (2008)|||
|Nathan Runkle||ca. 1984||30px US||Founder and executive director of Mercy for Animals|||
|Richard D. Ryder||1964–1995||30px UK||Psychologist, coined the term "speciesism" in 1970|||
|Becky Sanstedt||ca. 1960||30px US||Animal rights activist, former investigator for Farm Sanctuary|||
|Steve Sapontzis||30px US||Professor emeritus of philosophy at California State University, East Bay, author of Morals, Reason, and Animals (1987)|||
|Isaac Bashevis Singer||1902–1991||100px||30px Poland||Winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in Literature|||
|Henry Stephens Salt||1851–1939||30px UK||Civil-rights campaigner, author of Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (1894)|||
|Anuradha Sawhney||30px India||Head of Indian operations for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals|||
|Peter Singer||1946||File:Peter Singer MIT Veritas.jpg||30px Australia||Philosopher, author of Animal Liberation (1975)|||
|Paul Shapiro||1979||100px||30px US||Senior director of the Humane Society of the United States' Factory Farming Campaign|||
|Henry Spira||1927–1998||30px US||Animal rights activist, founder of Animal Rights International|||
|Kim Stallwood||30px UK||European director of the Animals and Society Institute|||
|Gary Steiner||30px US||John Howard Harris Professor of Philosophy at Bucknell University|||
|Pelle Strindlund||1971||30px Sweden||Writer, founding member of the Rescue Service|||
|Cass Sunstein||1954||100px||30px US||Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs|||
|David Sztybel||30px Canada||Philosopher, writer|||
|Peter Tatchell||1952||File:Nottingham Pride MMB A3 Peter Tatchell (cropped).jpg||30px Australia||Civil-rights activist|||
|Angus Taylor||30px Canada||Philosopher|||
|Sunaura Taylor||1982||30px US||Artist and writer|||
|Marianne Thieme||1972||100px||30px Netherlands||Member of Parliament, Party for the Animals|||
|Darren Thurston||ca. 1970||30px Canada||Animal rights activist|||
|Bob and Jenna Torres||30px US||Writers, animal rights and vegan activists|||
|Andrew Tyler||30px UK||Director of Animal Aid|||
|Jane Velez-Mitchell||1955||100px||30px US||Broadcast journalist|||
|John Vyvyan||30px UK||Writer, author of The Dark Face of Science (1971)|||
|Jerry Vlasak||1958||30px US||Physician, former Animal Liberation Press Office spokesperson|||
|Alice Walker||1944||100px||30px US||Writer|||
|Donald Watson||1910–2005||File:Donald watson.jpg||30px UK||Founder of the British Vegan Society|||
|Robin Webb||1945||30px UK||Spokesperson for the British Animal Liberation Press Office|||
|Caroline Earle White||1833–1916||100px||30px US||Co-founder of the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, founder of the American Anti-Vivisection Society|||
|Liz White||100px||30px Canada||Leader of the Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada|||
|Jon Wynne-Tyson||1924||30px UK||Founder of Centaur Press, author of The Extended Circle: A Commonplace Book of Animal Rights (1985)|||
|Steven M. Wise||1952||30px US||Law professor, author of Rattling the Case: Toward Legal Rights for Animals (2000)|||
|Ursula Wolf||1951||100px||30px Germany||Philosopher, author of Das Tier in der Moral (1990)|||
|Roger Yates||1957||100px||30px UK||Sociologist, co-founder of Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland|||
|Peter Daniel Young||100px||30px US||Animal rights activist|||
|Benjamin Zephaniah||1958||File:Benjamin Zephaniah University of Hull.jpg||30px UK||Rastafarian poet, honorary patron of the Vegan Society|||
- ↑ Taylor, Angus. Animals and Ethics: An Overview of the Philosophical Debate. Broadview Press, 2003, p. 15ff.
- ↑ Finsen, Susan and Finsen, Lawrence. "Animal rights movement," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 2009.
- For more about the history of the ideas, see Kean, Hilda. Animal Rights: Political and Social Change in Britain since 1800. Reaktion Books, 1998.
- Also see:
- Singer, Peter. "Animal liberation", The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 5, 5 April 1973.
- "Food for Thought", letter from David Rosinger and a reply from Peter Singer, The New York Review of Books, Volume 20, Number 10, 14 June 1973.
- Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation New York Review/Random House, 1975.
- Regan, Tom. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Oct., 1975), pp. 181-214.
- Regan, Tom. "McCloskey on Why Animals Cannot Have Rights", The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 104 (Jul., 1976), pp. 251-257.
- Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983.
- ↑ Francione, Gary L. and Garner, Robert. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?. Columbia University Press, 2010, p. 1ff, 103ff.
- ↑ Adams, Carol J. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum, 1990.
- Adams, Carol J. Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum, 1994.
- ↑ "Bryan Adams on Animal Rights and Being Vegan", PETA, accessed 3 June 2012.
- ↑ Barnett, David. "So long, Douglas Adams, and thanks for all the books", The Guardian, 11 May 2011.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 "Casey Affleck, Summer Phoenix Wed", People, 5 June 2006.
- ↑ Greenwald, Marilyn S. Cleveland Amory: Media Curmudgeon & Animal Rights Crusader. University Press of New England, 2009.
- ↑ "Anderson saves stray from life on the streets", Toronto Sun, 15 May 2012.
- ↑ Aufhauser, Michael. Happy End for Rescued Dogs. teNeues, 2008.
- Pidd, Helen. "Yvonne the cow still on the run in Germany, but field of clues is found", The Guardian, 24 August 2011.
- "Gut Aiderbichl", accessed 2 June 2012.
- ↑ Boggan, Steve. "Money talks", The Guardian, 1 June 2006.
- ↑ "Alec Baldwin to receive award at PETA gala, USA Today, 22 August 2005.
- Weir, Tom. "Alec Baldwin says your butcher is just as bad as Vick", USA Today, 19 August 2009.
- ↑ Ball, Matt. "Living and working in defense of animals," in Peter Singer (ed). In Defense Of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006.
- ↑ Balluch, Martin. "How Austria Achieved a Historic Breakthrough for Animals," in Peter Singer (ed). In Defense Of Animals: The Second Wave. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006.
- ↑ "Interview with A.L.F. Press Officer David Barbarash", No Compromise, Issue 17, accessed 21 May 2012.
- ↑ Wadman, Meredith. "Profile: Neal Barnard", Nature, 1 June 2006.
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- ↑ Singer, Barnett. Brigitte Bardot: A Biography. McFarland, 2006, p. 109 ff.
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- ↑ "Basinger is denied beagles", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 4 July 1997.
- ↑ Jones, Maggie. "The Barnyard Strategist", The New York Times, 24 October 2008, p. 2/5.
- ↑ "Tom Beauchamp - "Rights Theory and Animal Rights", Department of Philosophy, University of Calgary, accessed 5 June 2012.
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- ↑ Sunstein, Cass R. "Introduction: What are Animal Rights?," in Sunstein, Cass R. and Nussbaum, Martha (ed.). Animal rights. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 3–4; also see Francione, Gary. "Animals—Property or Persons"], p. 139, footnote 78, in the same volume.
- For the quote, see Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. University of California Press, 1983, p. 95.
- ↑ Smallwood, Scott. "Britain Bans American Professor Who Speaks on Behalf of Animal Liberation Front", The Chronicle of Higher Education, 29 August 2005.
- ↑ Brophy, Brigid. "The Rights on Animals," The Sunday Times, 10 October 1965; reprinted in Brophy, Brigid. Don't Never Forget. Cape, 1966.
- Ryder, Richard. Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Berg, 2000, p. 5.
- ↑ Dear, Paula. "Anatomy of an animal rights protest", BBC News, 5 October 2004.
- ↑ Guither, Harold D. Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. SIU Press, 1998, p. 128.
- ↑ Cavalieri, Paola and Singer, Peter (eds). The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity. St. Martin's Press, 1994.
- ↑ Shevelow, Kathryn. For the Love of Animals: The Rise of the Animal Protection Movement. Henry Holt and Company, 2008, p. 17ff.
- ↑ Puskar-Pasewicz, Margaret. Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism. Greenwood, 2010, p. 254.
- ↑ Lyall, Sarah. "Alan Clark, a British Scold, Is Dead at 71", The New York Times, 8 September 1999.
- ↑ Clark, Stephen R.L. The Moral Status of Animals. Oxford University Press, 1977.
- Clark, Stephen R.L. The Nature of the Beast. Oxford University Press, 1982.
- Clark, Stephen R.L. Animals and their Moral Standing. Routledge, 1997.
- ↑ Camfield, Greg. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 99.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Buettinger, Craig. "Women and antivivisection in late nineteenth century America", Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Summer, 1997), pp. 857–872.
- ↑ Coetzee, J. M. "Animals can't speak for themselves — it's up to us to do it", The Age, 22 February 2007.
- ↑ "Associate Director", Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, accessed 28 May 2012.
- "Transcript of Prof. Priscilla Cohn's Live ARZone Guest Chat", Animal Rights Zone, 17 December 2011.
- ↑ "The Satya Interview: Freedom from the Cages", accessed 20 May 2012.
- ↑ Falcon, Mike and Shoop, Stephen A. "James Cromwell sows a meatless message", USA Today, 2008, accessed 3 June 2012.
- ↑ Davis, Karen. The Holocaust and the Henmaid's Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities. Lantern Books, 2005.
- ↑ DeGrazia, David. Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
- ↑ Lee, Felicia R. "How Dogs Are Abused in a Scheme for Profit", The New York Times, 26 February 2006, p. 2.
- ↑ "Remembering Rukmini Devi", The Hindu, 23 February 2004.
- ↑ Rappaport, Helen. "Lind-af-Hageby, Louise", Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2001.
- ↑ "The Lord Dowding Fund for Humane Research", ldf.org.uk, accessed 2 June 2012.
- ↑ Linzey, Andrew. "Dowding, Lady Muriel," in Marc Bekoff (ed.). Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood, 1998, p. 139.
- ↑ Dunayer, Joan. Animal Equality : Language and Liberation. Ryce Pub, 2001.
- ↑ Lee, Felicia R. "How Dogs Are Abused in a Scheme for Profit", The New York Times, 26 February 2006, p. 2.
- ↑ "Frequently Asked Questions", The Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, accessed 25 May 2012: "By any reasonable definition chimpanzees should be categorized as a people."
- Fouts, Roger and Mills, Stephen Tukel. Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. Morrow, William, & Co., Inc., 1997.
- Blum, Deborah. "All in the Family", New Yorker, 12 October 1997.
- ↑ Francione, Gary. Animals, Property, and the Law . Temple University Press, 2005.
- Francione, Gary, and Garner, Robert. 'The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation? Columbia University Press, 2010.
- ↑ Rollin, Bernard E. "Ethics, animal welfare and ACUCs," in John P. Gluck, Tony DiPasquale, F. Barbara Orlans. Applied Ethics in Animal Research. Purdue University Press, 2002, p. 114.
- ↑ Heffern, Rich. "Bruce Friedrich: Advent and factory farms", National Catholic Reporter, 20 May 2012.
- ↑ Sengupta, Somini. "Indian Scion Speaks Out, and Uproar Follows Him", The New York Times, 2 April 2009.
- ↑ Garner, Robert and Francione, Gary. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation?. Columbia University Press, 2010.
- ↑ "The green room: Juliet Gellatley, animal rights advocate", The Guardian, January 3, 2008.
- ↑ Hickman, Leo. "The lawyer who defends animals", The Guardian, 5 March 2010.
- ↑ "About Celia Hammond", Celia Hammond Animal Trust, accessed 23 May 2012.
- ↑ Gålmark, Lisa (2000). "Women Antivivisectionists, The Story of Lizzy Lind af Hageby and Leisa Schartau," in Animal Issues, Vol 4, No 2, pp. 1–32.
- Kean, Hilda (1995). "The 'Smooth Cool Men of Science': The Feminist and Socialist Response to Vivisection", History Workshop Journal, 40: 16–38.
- Lansbury, Coral (1985). The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers, and Vivisection in Edwardian England. University of Wisconsin Press.
- ↑ Hall, Lee. On Their Own Terms: Bringing Animal-Rights Philosophy Down to Earth. Nectar Bat Press, 2010.
- "Where Animal Rights Can Go From Here: A Dialogue Between the Abolitionist Online and Lee Hall", Abolitionist Online, February 2008.
- ↑ "Barry Horne: The background", BBC News, 11 March 2003.
- Hall, Sarah. "Animal activists mourn their martyr", The Guardian, 6 November 2001.
- ↑ "Chrissie Hynde", Viva!, accessed 20 May 2012.
- ↑ Iyer, V. R. Krishna. Wandering in Many Worlds: An Autobiography. Pearson Education India, 2009, p. 85.
- ↑ Kalechofsky, Roberta. Autobiography of A Revolutionary: Essays on My Life as an Animal Rights Activist. Micah Publications, 1991.
- ↑ "Shannon Keith interview", Animal Liberation Front.com, accessed 20 May 2012.
- ↑ Lansbury, Coral. The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers, and Vivisection in Edwardian England. University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, p. 91ff.
- ↑ "Vegetarianism and Ecofeminism: Toppling Patriarchy with a Fork", in Sapontzis, Steve F. (ed). Food for Thought: The Debate Over Eating Meat. Prometheus Books, 2004.
- ↑ Ross, Kate. "Soy Substitute Edges Its Way Into European Meals", The New York Times, 16 November 2011.
- ↑ "Animal rights", United States House of Representatives, accessed 4 June 2012.
- ↑ "Mrs. K wants to give the big apes a break", The Washington Post, 29 October 2009.
- ↑ Ellen, Barbara. "Going to a good home", The Observer, 16 November 2008.
- ↑ Vaziri, Aidin. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/05/14/PKJH1D9OAS.DTL "K.d. lang"], San Francisco Chronicle, 16 May 2010.
- ↑ Tatchell, Peter. Animal research is poor science, interview with Gill Langley, Talking with Tatchell, accessed 20 May 2012.
- ↑ "Transcript of Ronnie Lee's Live Chat", Animal Rights Zone, 27 March 2010.
- ↑ "Transcript of Bob Linden's ARZone Guest Chat ~ 23/24 October 2010", Animal Rights Zone, 23 October 2010.
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